2 a car on a freight train for use of the train crew; usually the last car on the train [syn: cabin car]
- Rhymes: -uːs
- ttbc Spanish: Último vagón , Último carro , Último coche
- guards van obsolete
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A caboose (North American railway terminology) or brake van or guard's van (British terminology) is a manned rail transport vehicle coupled at the end of a freight train. Although cabooses were once used on nearly every freight train in North America, their use has declined and they are seldom seen on trains, except on locals and smaller railroads.
The caboose provided the train crew with a shelter at the rear of the train. From here they could exit the train for switching or to protect the rear of the train when stopped. They also used windows to inspect the train for problems such as shifting loads, broken or dragging equipment, and overheated journals (hotboxes). The conductor kept records and otherwise conducted business from a table or desk in the caboose. For longer trips the caboose provided minimal living quarters, and was very frequently personalized and decorated with pictures and posters.
Early cabooses were nothing more than flatcars with small cabins erected on them, or modified boxcars. Side door cabooses remained in service until outlawed due to their danger, but the standard form of the American caboose had a platform at either end with curved grab rails to facilitate train-crew members' ascent onto a moving train. A caboose was fitted with red lights called markers to enable the rear of the train to be seen at night. This has led to the phrase bringing up the markers to describe the last car on a train (these lights were officially what made a train a "train")
Cabooses are non-revenue equipment, and on the poorer lines were often improvised or retained well beyond the normal lifetime of a freight car. Tradition on many lines held that the caboose should be painted a bright red, though on many lines it eventually became the practice to paint cabooses in the same colors as locomotives.
Brake or Guards vans (UK & Australia)In the UK the brake van performed a similar function to the caboose on North American railroads, being the accommodation for the train crew at the rear of the train, specifically the train Guard hence its alternative name. On the island of Great Britain freight trains without a continuous train braking system in either the whole train or the rearmost section of the train (unfitted or partly fitted in UK railway parlance) were still prevalent in the 1970s but mostly eliminated by the 1980s. As of 2008, they are seen rarely on the main national rail network. On these trains the brake van had two additional functions: firstly the guard would use the brake van's brakes to assist with keeping the train under control on downgrades and whenever he could see that the locomotive's crew were attempting to slow the train; secondly, the brakes were left set on at a low setting all the time to ensure that the loose chain couplings often used between unfitted wagons (cars) were kept taut, to minimise the risk of snapped coupling chains from the locomotive snatching or jerking, which was particularly problematic in the days of steam locomotives. Brake vans thus had a significant amount of ballast weight built into their structure to increase the available braking effort.
In the 1970s the requirement for fully fitted freight trains to end with a guards van was lifted and the guard would ride in the rearmost locomotive cab, which since the UK mostly uses double-ended locomotives this has a good view of the train. These days brake vans only used in certain special cases, for example in trains with unusual cargoes or track maintenance trains, and are consequently very rare.
In Australia, brake vans (or guard's vans - both terms were in common use) were often also used for carrying parcels and light freight and had usually had large compartments and loading doors for such items. Some of the larger vans also included a compartment for passengers travelling on goods services or drovers travelling with their livestock.
Caboose typesThe form of cabooses varied over the years, with changes made both to reflect differences in service and improvements in design. The most commonly seen types are as follows:
Cupola or "standard" cabooseThe most common caboose form in American railroad practice has a small windowed projection on the roof, called the cupola. The crew sat in elevated seats in order to inspect the train from this perch.
The invention of the cupola is generally attributed to T. B. Watson, a freight conductor on the Chicago and North Western Railway. In 1898 he wrote:
The position of cupola varied. In most cabooses the cupola was in the center of the car, but some western railroads (most notably the Santa Fe) preferred to put it at the end of the car. These cars presented some operational issues because they had to be turned in order to face in the proper direction.
Bay window cabooseOn a bay window caboose, the crew monitoring the train sits in the middle of the car in a section of wall that projects from the side of the caboose. The windows set into these extended walls resemble architectural bay windows, so the caboose type is called a bay window caboose. This type afforded a better view of the side of the train and eliminated the falling hazard of the cupola. It is thought to have first been used on the Akron, Canton and Youngstown Railroad in 1923, but is particularly associated with the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, which built all of its cabooses in this design starting from an experimental model in 1930. On the west coast, the Western Pacific Railroad was an early adopter of the type, building their own bay window cars starting in 1942 and acquiring this style exclusively from then on. Many other roads operated this type, including the Southern Pacific Railroad, the Southern Railway, the Milwaukee Road, and the New York Central Railroad.
In the UK, brake vans are usually of this basic design: the bay window is known as a lookout or ducket.
Extended Vision cabooseIn the Extended Vision (EVC) or Wide-Vision caboose, the sides of the cupola project beyond the side of the carbody. Rock Island created some of these by rebuilding some standard cupola cabooses with windowed extensions applied to the sides of the cupola itself, but by far the greatest number have the entire cupola compartment enlarged. This model was introduced by the International Car Company and saw service on most western and many eastern lines. The expanded cupola allowed the crew to see past the top of the taller cars that began to appear after World War II, and also increased the roominess of the cupola area.
Additionally, Monon Railroad had a unique change to the Extended vision cabooses. They added a miniature bay to the sides of the cupola to enhance the views further. This created a unique look for their small fleet. Fortunately, Seven of the eight Monon built cabooses have been saved. One was scrapped after an accident in Kentucky. The surviving cars are at The Indiana Transportation Museum-operational, The French Lick Museum-operational, Kentucky railroad Museum-fire damaged, Bluegrass Railroad Museum-unrestored but servicable. The remaing three are at private property.
A transfer caboose looks more like a flat car with a shed bolted to the middle of it than it does a standard caboose. It is used in transfer service between rail yards or short switching runs, and as such lacks sleeping, cooking or restroom facilities. The ends of a transfer caboose are left open, with safety railings surrounding the area between the crew compartment and the end of the car.
A recent variation on the transfer caboose is the "pushing" or "shoving" platform. It can be any railcar where a brakeman can safely ride for some distance to help the engineer with visibility at the other end of the train. Flatcars and covered hoppers have been used for this purpose, but often the pushing platform is a caboose that has had its windows covered and welded shut and permanently locked doors. CSX uses former Missouri Pacific Railroad "shorty" transfer cabooses and marks them as pushing platforms.
Drover's cabooses looked more like combine cars than standard cabooses. The purpose of a drover's caboose was much more like a combine as well. On longer livestock trains in the American southwest, the drover's caboose is where the livestock's handlers would ride between the ranch and processing plant. The train crew rode in the caboose section while the livestock handlers rode in the coach section. Drover's cabooses used either cupolas or bay windows in the caboose section for the train crew to monitor the train.
The first written evidence of the usage of caboose in a railroad context appeared in 1859 (not 1861, as cited by the Online Etymology Dictionary), as part of court records in conjunction with a lawsuit filed against the New York and Harlem Railway. This suggests that caboose was probably in circulation among North American railroaders well before the mid-nineteenth century.
The railroad historian, David L. Joslyn (a retired Southern Pacific Railroad draftsman), has connected caboose to kabhuis, a Middle Dutch word referring to the compartment on a sailing ship's main deck in which meals were prepared. Kabhuis is believed to have entered the Dutch language circa 1747 as a derivation of the obsolete Low German word kabhuse, which also described a cabin erected on a ship's main deck. However, further research indicates that this relationship was more indirect than that described by Joslyn.
Eighteenth century French naval records make reference to a cambose or camboose, which term described the food preparation cabin on a ship's main deck, as well as the range within. The latter sense apparently entered American naval terminology around time of the construction of the USS Constitution, whose wood-burning food preparation stove is officially referred to as the camboose. These nautical usages are now obsolete: camboose and kabhuis became the galley when meal preparation was moved below deck, camboose the stove became the galley range, and kabuis the cookshack morphed into kombuis, which means kitchen in Afrikaans.
It is likely that camboose was borrowed by American sailors who had come into contact with their French counterparts during the American Revolution (recall that France was an ally and provided crucial naval support during the conflict). A New English Dictionary citation from the 1940s indicates that camboose entered English language literature in a New York Chronicle article from 1805 describing a New England shipwreck, in which it was reported that "...[survivor] William Duncan drifted aboard the canboose (sic).") they would have resembled the cookshack on the (relatively flat) deck of a ship, explaining the adoption and subsequent corruption of the nautical term.
There is some disagreement on what constitutes the proper plural form of the word "caboose". Similar words, like goose (pluralized as "geese"), and moose (pluralized as "moose", no change) point to the reason for the difficulty in coming to a consensus. The most common pluralization of caboose is "cabooses," with some arguing that this is incorrect, and, as with the word moose, it should stay the same in plural form—that is, "caboose" should represent one or many. A less-seriously used pluralization of the word is "cabeese," following the pluralization rule for the word goose, which is "geese." This particular form is almost universally used in an attempt at humor (as, presumably, is "cabice").
It was common for railroads to officially refer to cabooses as "cabin cars".
Slang termsOf all the implements of railroading, none has had more nicknames than the caboose. Many are of American or Canadian origin and seek to describe the vehicle or its occupants in derisive ways. Often heard amongst crews was "crummy" (as in a crummy place to live, not elegant, often too hot or too cold, and perhaps not especially clean), "clown wagon," "hack," "waycar," "doghouse," "go-cart," "glory wagon," "monkey wagon" (a term that indirectly insulted the principal functionary who rode therein, no doubt coined by an engineer), "brainbox" (the conductor was supposedly the brains of the train, as opposed to the "hogger" or engineer, who was presumed to be pigheaded), "palace," "buggy" (Boston & Maine/Maine Central Railroad), "van" (Eastern and Central Canada, usage possibly derived from the UK term for the caboose), and "cabin." There were others as well, some too profane to appear in print.
The small, two-axle cabooses that were widely used during the latter part of the nineteenth century were called "bobbers," which term described their riding characteristics on the relatively uneven track of the time. Bobbers tended to produce an unpleasant pitching motion that was usually not present in more modern, two truck models.
FRED, the end of an eraUntil the 1980s, laws in the United States and Canada required that all freight trains have a caboose. Technology eventually advanced such that a caboose was unnecessary, providing improved bearings and lineside detectors to detect hot boxes, and better designed cars to avoid problems with the load. The caboose was also a dangerous place, as slack run-ins could hurl the crew from their places and even dislodge weighty equipment. With the introduction of FRED/EOTs (flashing rear-end device/end-of-train device), the caboose was no longer necessary.
Several states had caboose laws, among them: Arkansas, Florida, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, Texas and Virginia. It is interesting that many conservative and anti-labor states had enacted caboose laws. There was significant concern among rural businesses and farmers over accountability for railroad safety.
A FRED/EOT could be attached to the rear of the train to detect the train's air brake pressure and report any problems back to the locomotive. The FRED/EOT also detects movement of the train upon start-up and radios this information to the engineer so that he/she will know that all of the slack is out of the couplings and additional power can now be applied. The machine also has a blinking red light to warn followers that a train is ahead. With the introduction of the FRED/EOT, the conductor moved up to the front of the train with the engineer and year by year, cabooses started to fade away. Very few cabooses remain in operation today, though they are still used for some local trains where it is convenient to have a brakeman at the end of the train to operate switches and the like.
Preservation and reuse of cabooses
Although the caboose has largely fallen out of use, some are still retained by railroads in a reserve capacity. These cabooses are typically used in and around railyards. Other uses for the caboose include "special" trains, where the train is involved in some sort of railway maintenance, or as part of survey trains that inspect remote rail lines after natural disasters to check for damage. Others have been modified for use in research roles to investigate complaints from residents or business owners regarding trains in certain locations. Finally, some are coupled to trains for special events, including historical tours.
The Chihuahua al Pacífico Railroad in Mexico still uses cabooses to accompany their motorail trains between Chihuahua and Los Mochis.
Cabooses have also become popular for collection by railroad museums and for city parks and other civic uses, such as visitor centers. Several railroad museums roster large numbers of cabooses, including the Illinois Railway Museum with nineteen examples and the Western Pacific Railroad Museum at Portola, California with seventeen. Many shortline railroads still use cabooses today. Large railroads also use cabooses as "shoving platforms" or in switching service where it is convenient to have crew at the rear of the train.
Cabooses have been re-used as garden offices in private residences, and as portions of restaurants. Also, caboose motels have appeared, with the old cars being reborn as cabins.
The largest group of privately owned and operated cabooses in the United States is located in Tilton, New Hampshire and includes a mixture of different railroad heritages as well as styles. Located on two sidings adjacent to the former Boston & Maine Railroad freight house, these cabooses travel north from Tilton with motive power supplied by the Hobo Railroad about six times per year.
caboose in German: Bremserhäuschen
caboose in Persian: واگن خدمت
caboose in Hebrew: קרון בילום
caboose in Japanese: 車掌車
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